Are COVID-19 Vaccines Going To Cause Infertility?

  1. T-1 independent (TI-1): These are molecules that induce broad B cell activation that is not based on their ability to recognize antigen. Instead, they generally stimulate B cells to divide extensively, which is known as polyclonal activation. At low concentrations of a TI-1 may falsely demonstrate enrichment of a specific B cell clone.
  2. T-2 independent (TI-2): Antigens that can cross-link a B cell receptor (immunoglobulin) to activate B cells without the need for T cell help. This mostly applies to carbohydrate antigens which have many repeating units of a sugar sequence.


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Edward Nirenberg

Edward Nirenberg


I write about vaccines here. You can find me on Twitter @enirenberg and at (where I publish the same content without a paywall)